Vĩnh Long is a province located in the Mekong River Delta of southern Vietnam. Its capital is Vĩnh Long. Its population is 1,023,400 and its area is 1,475 km2.
Located approximately 135 km southwest of Hồ Chí Minh City, Vĩnh Long is easily accessible by bus, van or car using National Road 1A and the Mỹ Thuận Bridge.
Lying between the Hau and Tien rivers in the center of the Mekong Delta, Vĩnh Long is a province well known for fishing.
Prawns and the Basa and Tra catfish are among the many types of fish that exist in abundance in the waters of Vĩnh Long. Its rich, fertile soil makes Vĩnh Long an ideal location for the growing of many exotic and delicious fruits, including the strange-looking mangosteen, the spikey rambutan and the pungently fragrant durian. Because of Vĩnh Long's extensive network of waterways, these fruits and many other items can be purchased for mere pennies from the huge water-based squadron of floating merchants.
Traveling by water is a common practice here for such mundane tasks as grocery shopping as well as getting to restaurants and tourist attractions located on small islets accessible only by boat. Tourist infrastructure is still in its infancy here, but comfortable lodging and great food can be had for very reasonable prices.
Modern-day Vĩnh Long was part of Long Hồ dinh established by the Nguyễn Lords in 1732, comprising the provinces of Bến Tre, Trà Vinh, and parts of Cần Thơ. The area saw some of the heaviest fighting between the Tây Sơn brothers and the Nguyễn Lords in the late 18th century; in 1784 Nguyễn Huệ defeated Siamese forces aiding Nguyễn Ánh at the Mang Thít River.
In 1951, the Southern Resistance Administrative Committee of the newly-declared Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) merged Vĩnh Long and Trà Vinh provinces into Vĩnh Trà Province. Vĩnh Trà Province existed until 1954 (however, as North Vietnam never administered the area for a significant period of time, this arrangement was not enforced). In 1957, the government of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) formed Vĩnh Long province, consisting of 6 districts: Châu Thành, Chợ Lách (now part of Bến Tre Province), Tam Bình, Bình Minh, Sa Đéc, and Lấp Vò. In 1961, Cái Nhum District was split from Chợ Lách. Đức Tôn and Đức Thành Districts were added in 1962, but joined the newly-formed Sa Dec Province in 1966. As of 1975, the province had 7 districts: Châu Thành, Chợ Lách, Tam Bình, Bình Minh, Minh Đức, Trà Ôn, and Vũng Liêm.
After the fall of Saigon and South Vietnam was reunited with North Vietnam, the new government merged Vĩnh Long with Trà Vinh Province, forming Cửu Long Province in 1976. In 1991, Cửu Long was again split into Vĩnh Long and Trà Vinh. At the time of the split, Vĩnh Long Province consisted of one city (Vĩnh Long) and 5 districts: Long Hồ, Vũng Liêm, Bình Minh, Tam Bình, and Trà Ôn.
In 1992, Mang Thít District was re-split from Long Hồ District. In 2007, Bình Tân District was created.