Lạng Sơn is a province in far northern Vietnam, around 155km to the Northwest of Ha Noi ,bordering Guangxi province in China. Its capital is also called Lạng Sơn, which is a strategically important town at the border with China and is 137 kilometres (85 mi) northeast of Hanoi connected by rail and road. Lang Son Province is bounded by China in the north, Cao Bang Province borders the northwest, Ha Bac Province on the south, Quang Ninh Province starting on the south and extending to the eastern border and Thái Nguyên Province is to the west.
Lang Son Province, Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Bắc Giang, Bắc Kạn, Cao Bang, Phu Tho, Quang Ninh, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang and Yen Bai of the Đông Bắc (Northeastern Region) are part of the 59 administrative provinces and 5 municipalities in Vietnam.
Ancient history of the province is linked to the Bronze Age when the trade route that existed between China and India that passed from the Red River Delta through Nanning to Guangzhou. The province was one of the 13 original provinces in northern Vietnam created under the reign of Emperor Minh Mạng in 1831.
Friendship Gate, the historical land link between China and Vietnam, links Lạng Sơn and Guangxi, China. Being a border province, it is important for trade between the two countries. It is accessible by road and rail from Hanoi, the Vietnamese capital, and it is the northernmost point on National Road 1A. Lang Son's economy is 80% based on agriculture and forestry. However, in recent years economic development has received full attention to exploit its rich mineral resources.
The ethnic groups which inhabit the province are the Viet (Kinh), Tay, Nung, Dao, Mong and San Chay, Ngai and Montagnards who retained their tribal life styles. Nungs comprised 42.97% of the population, followed by Tay people with 35.92%. Ethnic Vietnamese are 16.5%, and the remainder are mostly Dao, Hoa, Sán Chay and Hmong.